Over the past 500 years there has only been about 600 cases of conjoined twins surviving birth. Following the first successful operation to separate conjoined twins in 1955, there have been over 200 successful operations of its kind. 

On the 21st of October, 2016,  Dr. James T. Goodrich and his team of expert surgeons successfully separated thirteen-month-old craniopagus twin boys Jadon and Anias McDonald at The Children's Hospital at Montefiore in New York.   

3D printing technology enabled Dr. James T. Goodrich and his team to see inside the boys' brains. They used virtual planning technology to create 3D models of the boys' brains and skull and then proceeded to 3D print them. They practiced the surgery on the 3D printed skulls and brains until they were confident with the procedure and then performed the operation on the young boys. 

The McDonald twins' brain separation took several hours to complete and both the boys' skulls were re-built with their own bone and covered primarily with skin.

[Image Source: Montefiore via PR Newswire]

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